Enrico Fermi lived from 29 September 1901 to 28 November 1954 in what is said to be a very different era than today. There is a category of particles named after him called fermions whose behavior follows what is called Fermi-Dirac statistics. Fermi is considered the "architect of the nuclear age" and "architect of the atomic bomb;" a very controversial subject. Life would be very different today without the work of this man and those he collaborated with.
For more information regarding Enrico Fermi's life, especially his journey from Rome to Chicago, start by clicking on the link to one of his biographies.